MAYON VOLCANO

 

NAME OF VOLCANO:                        MAYON

LOCATION:                                         Albay, 300 km southeast of Manila

                                                             (1315.4'N, 12341.1’E)

 

 

PHYSICAL FEATURES

Elevation:  2.46 km          

Base Diameter:  20 km

Base Circumference:  62.8 km (reckoned from 10-km radius) encompassing the towns of Camalig, Malilipot and Sto. Domingo                   

Type of Volcano:  Stratovolcano                         

Adjacent Volcanic Edifice:  Mt. Malinao, Lignon Hill and Balong Gloria Hill

 

 

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES

Rock Type:  Basalt to Olivine-bearing Pyroxene Andesite         

Tectonic Setting:  Bicol Volcanic Chain

 

 

VOLCANIC ACTIVITY

Number of Historical Eruptions:  51

Latest Eruption/Activity:

12 August 2014 (lava dome growth)

Eruption Type:

1. Strombolian  (e.g.. 1978, 1st phase of 1984 eruption)

2. Vulcanian  (e.g. 1st phase of 1968 eruption, 2nd phase of 1984 eruption)

3. Plinian  (e.g. 1814)

 Precursors to Eruptions:

1. Increase in seismicity level  (Background: 0-10 volcanic quakes per day)

2. Ground tilt due to magma intrusion.

3. Change in color of steam emission from white to gray due  to entrained ash

4.  Increase in the volume of steam emission

5.  Crater glow due to  presence of magma at or near the  crater.

6. Rumbling sounds due to gas explosions, wall fracturing, landslides

 

 

VOLCANIC HAZARDS

Type of Hazards:

1. Airfall tephra

2. Lava flows

3. Pyroclastic flows

4. Lahars

Permanent Danger Zone:  six (6) km radius from the summit

 

 

MONITORING ACTIVITY


Volcano Observatory:  Lignon Hill Observatory (LHO) - 12 km SSE of the summit   (12343.56’ E, 1309.64’N)

Monitoring Methods:

1. Seismic monitoring (number of volcanic quakes and tremors)

2. Ground deformation (precise leveling, electronic tiltmeter, GPS)

3. Visual observations (telemetered ip Cameras)

4. Sulfur dioxide emission (by COSPEC/Flyspec/NOVAC)

5. Carbon Dioxide emission (Gasbox)

6. Water well monitoring


Monitoring Stations

A - Seismic Network

Digital Permanent: Lignon Hill Observatory,  Upper Anoling,  Sta. Misericordia, Mayon Rest House, Buang Junction, Muladbucad, Masarawag, Guinobatan, Calbayog and Golf Course
with repeater sites at Mt. Bariw, Upper Sto. Domingo and Tabaco

        

B - Ground Deformation

         Precise leveling lines:  Buang Junction to Mayon Rest House (20 benchmarks); Lidong (13

                          benchmarks)

         GPS stations: Legazpi (Lignon Hill), Sto. Domingo (San Andres),Sto. Domingo (Lidong), Sto.Domingo (Bical), Sto.Domingo (Sta. Misericordia), Camalig (Upper Anoling), Tabaco  (MRH), Tabaco (Buang), Ligao (Nabonton) and Camalig (Upper Anoling)

                          

         Permanent Electronic tiltmeter stations: Upper Anoling, Buang, Calbayog, Danny Bon (between Buang & MRH), and Mayon Rest House (MRH)